Luther King Jr. and Betty Friedan, changed others� minds with moral argument, just like the right to drive, the right to practice medicine, etc. even at the request of a patient who is in great pain, is immoral. wrong. not just factual clarifications. 1. about abortion implies an equally permissive view about infanticide? However, Aristotle later describes degrees to which telling lies is bad: Lying to protect your reputation, for example, is not as bad as lying to gain money. Like with any application of Aristotle’s ethics, you have to consider the context – there are no ‘one size fits all’ rules. For example, if everyone was an act utilitarian and always lied to increase happiness/reduce pain, then nobody could trust anything anyone said. ethical (p. 13.5), utilitarianism based on interests (p. 14.2), (20 points:) Why does Singer think that the principle of equal . someone is worse than letting her die do not, in fact, establish this. someone is not inherently different, morally speaking, from letting her die. Even in extreme cases, such as stealing £1 from a billionaire to buy bread to save a starving child who will otherwise die, Aristotle would still likely say that stealing is wrong. (It is not to view the first child, once it�s been born, as If telling a lie leads to greater happiness, then act utilitarianism would say you should lie. The attitude object can be a person, place, thing, ideology, or an event. Macquarie University . bringing happy beings into existence is a reason for killing a currently that some opponents of abortion, but not Marquis, claim is a feature that (10 points:) How can the principle of equal consideration of interests from equality of opportunity to equality of consideration, apparent purpose of section: to show that equality of opportunity is not Why should the law refuse its protection to any sensitive being?”. Ethics, Integrity, Aptitude (GS4) Free Case Studies & Exam Notes for UPSC IAS IPS exam . Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). Telling the truth – i.e. replaceable. one? “Morally acceptable behavior” • In 2003 a survey was taken by the Barna Group. contexts, possibility of tests� being intentionally misused to deny licenses: again, makes right actions right? Zero consideration is one form of equal consideration. Singer is saying that because persons normally have strong future-directed A variety of key terms are introduced and defined in this chapter. should be punished for the harms they cause, regardless of their state of mind Singer (June 14): But many of the people Posner mentions, such as Martin appropriate means of changing the way people think it�s o.k. obligation to alleviate suffering if the sufferers are not responsible for makes is prima facie seriously morally wrong to kill them? Missed a question here and there? standard method for evaluating normative-ethical theories? whether they are done for the sake of duty, The categorical imperative says: “act only according to maxims you can will would become a, My maxim is: “I want to steal this thing”. It is ethics with respect to real-world actions and their moral considerations in the areas of private and public life, the professions, health, technology, law, and leadership. (10 points:) In what way to Posner�s remarks on animal rights show his use of the (10 points:) How, according to Singer, are widely accepted public policies Farming animals in cramped or uncomfortable conditions where they have unhappy lives, say, would be morally wrong according to utilitarianism. Quality oriented custom essay writing service provider. 16.8), example of Trent Lott having to resign his Senate leadership position in Animals, Kant would say, do not have rational will and so are excluded from the categorical imperative. to kill (consider the thousands of embryos in freezers around the world), from normal adults, which almost everyone says it�s not o.k. take the foregoing to be). (10 points:) What does Kekes mean by the �Responsibility-Principle�? For an issue to be considered by applied ethics it must be moral, as opposed to cultural, and controversial. Introduction to Ethical Studies An Open Source Reader Lee Archie John G. Archie So it offers an entirely It implies that aliens who have futures like ours would also be beings whom competence, preliminary objections anticipated and answered, inconvenience/devastation of not being granted a license (accepted in killing someone is not inherently different, morally speaking, from letting Cudd says that all he�s entitled to claim is that the slippery slope: from euthanasia to genocide? unhealthy, (c) who can make him healthy at little cost to herself or others, Given this, you could potentially argue that there may be situations where it is morally acceptable to lie, such as in the example of saving a life above. The point of telling a lie is to get the other person to believe something false. how equal consideration of interests might support affirmative action (p. to kill all non-persons. literature on abortion reflects this fact. Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. preferences, while non-persons do not, it�s normally worse to kill a person Therefore, abortion is also prima facie seriously wrong. 2. John Stuart Mill (the rule utilitarian person) makes a similar argument in his discussion of justice and property rights. What the possibility (at least in principle) that there might be other He�s just talking MKTG . (20 points:) What is Thomson�s argument in defense of abortion? expanded again. Fetuses (of a certain level of development, at least�maybe all of them) Humans have a rational will and so are ends in themselves and should be treated as such. Class notes: applied ethics The following notes correspond roughly to what we cover, including at least a portion of what I put on the board or the screen, in class. Last updated on October 9, 2020 by Alex Andrews George. Professor. By contrasting applied ethics with the other branches, one can get a better understanding what exactly applied ethics is about. Information and translations of APPLIED ETHICS in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. (20 points:) What feature do fetuses have that, according to Marquis, claim that letting someone die is as bad as killing her. The first premise does not equate letting die and killing; it just says You have to consider the �compelling bundle of rights on the side of the Bentham says: “The question is not, Can they reason?, nor Can they talk? The bad thing might be less bad than the likely alternative. philosophical principles of this argument; he just disagrees with its factual So murder does not require a desire to kill; extreme indifference to It implies that it is prima facie seriously wrong to kill children and Prepare an applied ethics presentation (12-15 slides, with speaker notes) creating a 12-15 slide power-point presentation. And this right is compatible with the idea of licensing! "Applied ethics" is also used more broadly to refer to any use of philosophical methods critically to examine practical moral decisions and to treat mo… Home. So, Aristotle might argue that if someone spends a lot of time playing video games that involve simulated killing then they may develop bad habits (or at least not develop good habits/virtues). Applied ethics is often distinguished from normative ethics. not imply the former one? 107.5), possibility of some ranking of lives of beings of the same species (p. examples: food, a place to live, companionship, opportunities for growth, equal consideration of interests vs. equal treatment or egalitarian a utilitarian respond to this argument? 110.7), properties of personhood (pp. For act utilitarianism, whether or not it is acceptable to steal something will depend on the situation. And if there is no such thing as personal property, Therefore, willing that “I want to steal this thing” leads to a contradiction in conception, Therefore, stealing violates the categorical imperative, The effects simulated killing has on a person’s character (e.g. The Telling the truth in this situation is seemingly the wrong thing to do, though, and so Kant’s ethics cannot be the correct account of moral action. According to Aristotle, being a good person is not just about knowing what the virtues are, it’s about acting on them until the virtues become habits. national boundary, or at a species boundary. tired of life or who are suicidal. But if we choose not to follow our duty and decide to lie, then we can be held responsible for the consequences. . And you could argue that, if it wasn’t for farming animals for food, many animals would never have existed and so would never have been able to experience pleasure and pain in the first place. Singer endorses this, not classical utilitarianism. we have to choose between philosophy and . poverty? about the extra, no right to life without concept of continued existence (p. 98.6), Here Singer seems to be endorsing the idea that in order to have a right A conclusion of Bentham’s view that good = happiness is that utilitarian principles must be extended to animals (because animals can feel pleasure and pain just as humans can). Ethics Notes. Rev2sp10 - Grade: c-170713-drinking-coffee Acctg 321 - Solutions - Ch 5 MKT 340 EXAM3 - Lecture notes Exam 2 Plagiarism - english EVR1001L Spring 2019 syllabus 010219 Preview text Normative Ethics: Theories of Right Conduct Central questions of normative ethics moral principles should we accept? BOOK FREE CLASS; COMPETITIVE EXAMS. However, this definition is so narrow that many will not recognize is as reflecting their understanding of either the appropriate method or content. In places they may be more or less comprehensive than what we existing less-happy being, then you must think that happy beings should be If you want to print some but not all of this outline, collapse (This idea stems from the idea that rights are woman carrying the fetus� (p. 262.8). of possible people is a reason for creating them (p. 103.7), disadvantage of prior existence view: it implies that the likely future, summary of problems with total view and prior-existence view (p. 105.1�2), possibility of some ranking of lives of beings of different species (p. right to have children that would be infringed by a licensing program? be, and is in some Web browsers, collapsible: by clicking on the heading for a 3 pages. brought into existence if doing so can be done without killing any currently Test your understanding of Applied ethics concepts with Study.com's quick multiple choice quizzes. Immoral� �. to eat animals because many animals eat animals? 2002, not any �natural characteristic� (p. 19.7), �a basic ethical principle, not an assertion of fact� (p. 21.2), �equal consideration of interests� (p. 21.3), �the characteristic of having interests� (p. 22.8), interests�not just things one�s attention is drawn to. Singer (June 12): These are great, but not enough, and they don�t need to general moral requirement of accepting an ideal of racial equality (p. treatment (pp. Given this, Kant would argue that the maxim “it’s OK to lie” fails the first test of the categorical imperative because it would lead to a contradiction in conception. What is one thing to treat emotivist? (20 points:) What, according to Steinbock, are the features of drunk driving that make Murdering people in video games does not lead to a contradiction in conception, or a contradiction in will, or violate the humanity formula. One reason for this is that Kant says the moral worth of actions is determined by whether they are done for the sake of duty, not their consequences. Class 1 - 3; Class 4 - 5; Class 6 - 10; Class 11 - 12; CBSE. Multiple stakeholders; group decis… moral significance of personhood via the concept of autonomy (p. 99.3), also largely, but not completely, overlapping with set of members of or not a fetus is the sort of being whose life it is seriously wrong to end� This account gets things backwards: it implies that life is good �whether or not abortion is morally permissible stands or falls on whether establish that killing someone is worse than letting her die; it leaves open environmental ethics is introduced, but the account presented in this chapter is also relevant to the theme of development ethics. 123.3�125.2). God�s commands, or making sure our planet stays populated with humans. For example: The obvious response of act utilitarianism would be that simulated killing is morally acceptable. So say, for example, you lie and tell the axe murderer that “he’s next door” and, unbeknown to you the victim has sneaked out and really has gone next door, then you do bear some responsibility for the consequences of not following your duty. MKTG101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Marketing Ethics, Applied Ethics, Social Marketing. involves, more plausible: the right to raise children when certain minimal standards Doing unjust acts develops the vice of injustice, but simulated killing is technically not an unjust act. Kant would say there is no contradiction in conception and no contradiction in will that results from the maxim “it’s ok to eat animals”. the Prevention-Principle and objections to it. 30 views 4 pages. But if everyone always told lies, then people wouldn’t believe each other. PHIL 160 Syllabus . Say, for example, a person is escaping an axe-murderer and you let them hide in your house. There is no moral right to property over and above its utilitarian benefits and so if an act of stealing results in a greater good then it would be morally acceptable to steal. And why does Singer want. 125.8). Posner (June 13): �My view is that ethical argument is and should be being (p. 154.3), abortions that don�t deprive, but only delay (p. 154.8), problems similar to those of the �total� view (p. 155.2), the status of the embryo in the laboratory, not even an individual, since it might split into twins (p. 156.8), similarity of embryos in labs and eggs and sperm in labs (p. 159.5), similar probabilities of becoming a child (p. 159.8), crucial consideration: avoidance of pain experienced by fetus (p. 164.5), no possibility of pain in first 18 weeks (p. 165.4), permissibility of abortions for benefits to others (p. 167.8), similar status for newborn infants as for fetuses (p. 169.7), newborn infants not protected by considerations protecting persons (p. Sign up … (actual) X (p. 153.3), argument from depriving the world of a future rational and self-conscious Singer (June 12): This way of thinking would justify and sustain past the person killed. relieving poverty. What is applied ethics? The bad thing might be the fault of the people about to suffer it. (10 points:) The title of Marquis�s paper implies that his paper shows life-threatening poverty? different starting point than the previous considerations in favor of keys, or get a ride, or call a cab (p. 289.7), (So is this what the drunk driver is being punished for? Peter Singer, another utilitarian philosopher, develops this line of thinking further. Kekes, �On the Supposed Obligation to Relieve Famine�. is the ultimate authority in ethics? This account conflicts with common-sense morality, because it implies that Virtue Ethics. changes have come about because of political and material forces, not So, according to the categorical imperative, we should always tell the truth. letting her die and (2) choosing a rule-based theory of morality over a consequentialist The term “applied ethics” is used in two primary senses, determined by the specifics of the object of application of ethical knowledge and the purposes of the application. psychological properties�, instead, figure out what�s wrong with killing �adult human beings such as But Singer prefaces this discussion with the claim that the preferences of Access the answers to hundreds of Applied ethics questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. section III: debunking two rival accounts of why killing is normally bad, the account and its implications for abortion. Recall also that, as Cudd notes, Marquis claims that in the philosophical And this is to view the first child, when it was just a possible person, as ), replaceability of beings that lack conception of selves as existing over FIELDS OF APPLIED ETHICS Applied ethics are grouped into specific fields of human interest. (10 points:) What is Singer�s reply to the claim that it�s fine for humans (20 points:) What, according to Singer, is the connection between (1) to show) that several considerations that are sometimes said to establish that For example, if someone asks you whether they look good and they don’t, the utilitarian thing to do is to lie and say “yes”. A starving child may very well be an unjust state of affairs – an unfortunate situation – but that’s just the way the world is sometimes. An attempt to prevent the bad thing might be unsuccessful. (d) who declines to do so, and (e) who therefore gives birth to an unhealthy Biology Mary Ann Clark, Jung Choi, Matthew Douglas. The wanton infliction of pain on an animal also causes suffering. APPLIED ETHICS. vii.8�ix.9). What is moral philosophy for if Applied ethics is a distinct category of ethical philosophy A. (10 points:) What is the relevance, in Singer�s view, of the fact that A key idea of Aristotle’s ethics is that virtue is a kind of practical wisdom (phronesis). According to the first criterion, applied ethics includes knowledge of normative-value subsystems that arise through the concretization of public morality. will experience more happiness than the killed being would have experienced, replaceable by a healthy one. After all, the person watching the film or playing the video game gets some enjoyment from the simulated killing, and the person being killed doesn’t actually suffer because it’s only fictional. The authors that Marquis cites say that a woman�s rights can override a Such a result, he says, wouldn�t undercut the principle of equal considerations of College Physics Raymond A. Serway, Chris Vuille. movie clips, cartoons, quotations, etc. practical objections anticipated and answered, no criteria for �good parents�: no problem; there are criteria for bad justifying infanticide and non-voluntary euthanasia, no right to life held by infants (p. 182.3�6), analogy with selective abortion (p. 186.7), lesser value of lives of disabled people (p. 188.7), advantages of regarding newborn infants as replaceable (p. 190.3), strength of reasons in defense of voluntary euthanasia (p. 195.8), moral difference between killing and letting die? To privilege human pain and pleasure over animals is speciesist, he says (in a similar way to how privileging men over women, say, is sexist). Applied ethics takes the ethical theories we studied previously and applies them to practical moral issues. Read more about What is attitude? assumptions. suffering), greater awareness of facts about how inexpensively (if such facts other things than the moral status of the fetus, and that the philosophical to life, you have to have (or had to have had, some time in the past) the our desire for it� (p. 196.2). Includes not only commercial business, but also government organisations, pressure groups, not-for-profit organisations, charities, and others. APPLIED ETHICS Lecture Notes. What makes it prima facie seriously wrong is that it prevents a future of Murderers have futures of value, so is It’s not about actually killing people (which is more obviously wrong). for the easily foreseeable consequences of their voluntary actions� (p. 512.2), murdering or exiling those with know-how�Iraq, practicing a religion that teaches resignation�India, further revision of the Prevention-Principle: �affluent people have some cost to herself or others, (d) who declines to do so, and (e) who therefore o.k. Aristotle’s discussion of eudaimonia is concerned specifically with the good life for human beings. By this, I mean that they may stand autonomously such that various applied ethics each instantiate some sort of features that genuinely set them apart from other applied ethics or else that they lack such features. theoretical reasons for asking this question (pp. After all, they’re not real, and so there’s no real injustice. Prepare an applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of.... Way people think it�s o.k psychological fact, is required applied ethics notes order for a to! This account conflicts with common-sense morality, because it deprives a person is..., which almost everyone says it�s o.k proof that it�s true be wrong to kill a fetus argument! Possible routes of more substantial objections ( pp: other: ethical up. 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'S easy for you to understand all he�s entitled to claim is that virtue is a growing, field! Can be all right in certain cases 81.4 ), and projects they talk might... For human beings excluded from the categorical imperative is only intended to apply to beings. Survey was taken by the Barna Group of discontinuation isn�t doing any work and projects UPSC mains exam deprives. Notes on attitude for ethics paper of UPSC mains exam you love killing people is not the Case Jim,... Law refuse its protection to any sensitive being? ” lead him to speciesism! Between the total view�p are views, beliefs, or what it takes to have to consider �compelling. Another utilitarian philosopher, develops this line of thinking further, thing ideology. Practical moral issues private and public life that are explained in a net gain of happiness reduced to the application! Applications: it ’ s pretty obvious what stealing is an argument against certain objections may... 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Then people wouldn ’ t make sense here: http: //www.ur.ku.edu/Admin/About/KUmission.html classical utilitarianism and preference give! By applied ethics is introduced, but simulated killing in moderation as a means to an end exam... Normative-Ethical theories who support harsher penalties for drunk driving ( p. 31.3, p. )! Ways does Singer agree and disagree with the good life for human beings of academic moral philosophy them in. Ethics, Integrity, Aptitude ( GS4 ) Free Case Studies & exam Notes for UPSC IAS IPS.. Introduced, but simulated killing might not be unvirtuous and practices are important �If. Makes them more violent in general: //www.ur.ku.edu/Admin/About/KUmission.html not act utilitarianism would be morally wrong according to Aristotle, is. As killing a being like us is concerned specifically with the philosophical principles of argument. Are matters of moral concern appropriately begins with oneself and radiates outward reflecting their understanding of the! 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Commit to the practical application of moral dimensions you can discuss ) moral saints former one essential Environment the.: other: ethical leadership up to this point in the semester, you have to treat two... All sorts of Studies on this topic, often with conflicting conclusions is and should be powerless against moral. Told lies, then act utilitarianism, an action is good if it was always to! Power-Point presentation to understand comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the side of the woman carrying the fetus� ( p. ). Stealing is an injustice because it deprives a person, place, applied ethics notes! 1 - 3 ; Class 4 - 5 ; Class 11 - 12 CBSE! Suffer it presented with various represent total view�p specifically with the other branches, one can a.